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We would like to invite you to follow the next exercise. The focus of this exercise. D1 should still be open from the last exercise. If not, please open it, e. The Quotation. Manager opens floating. Dock it and move it to a new tab group to the right, so that you can see the. Click on the D1 document tab, so that it becomes the active tab. The ribbon on top should automatically. If not click on the Document tab. If you need more space on your screen, close the navigator on the left-hand side of your screen. Start reading the article and highlight a passage that you find interesting—just like marking something with.

After highlighting something in the document, several buttons in the ribbon have become active. Select the. You will now see a first entry in the Quotation Manager. Click on it to preview the content of the quotation in the Preview area. Next to this area, you see a comment field. Write some text into the comment field. Create a new quotation without having to code immediately. Document and Quotation Manager loaded in two regions next to each other. Please note on your screen, as soon as you work inside the Quotation Manager, the active tab in the ribbon.

Among other options, you find an option to rename quotations. By default, the. Notice, for instance, that the first sentence in the article can best be understood as a hook. Rename the. You can read the quotation in full length in the preview field. Add a few more quotations, write comments and rename the quotations so that the new name reflects a. Each quotation has an ID which consists of the document number and a number that indicates the chronological. Thus, quotation 1: Further towards the right, you find a column with the start and stop position for each.

When the list of quotation gets longer and longer and you are looking for a particular quotation—a fully coded. If you want to save screen space and you are not yet coding your data, you can hide the Codes column in the. Quotation Manager: Quotation Manager with preview area and comment field. Renaming quotations to summarize the content, add first interpretations into comments.

A hyperlink is a named linked between two quotations. If, for instance, you notice that one statement in a. These are just a few of the default. If they do not fit what you want to express, you can create user-defined. To create a hyperlink, you can simply drag and drop one quotation on top of another in the Quotation. Manager or in the margin area. Hiding column with codes in the Quotation Manager. You will see some symbols being added to the Quotation Id:. Now look at the margin area; there you also see the hyperlinks that you just have created:. List of commented and hyperlinked quotations.

Just one last exercise before we move onto coding:. This applies to anything, whether it is creating. Let us now see how the hyperlinks you have created look in a network:. Go back to the Quotation Manager. If you have a quotation that is source and target, select this quotation if.

Your network might look similar to the one shown in. Networks can also be created within the graphical interface and you have several further options, some of which. At this point, we would like to point out an additional benefit of. As the names are displayed in a network, it allows you to create. Display of quotation and hyperlinks in the margin area.

Network based on the created hyperlinks. In this section, we show you to code text and images. You can continue to work with the currently open Children. Open document D3: If the document is not on. Use your mouse to highlight the first sentence beginning with "I was happy before I had kids It is also possible to code a selection with multiple codes. You can enter as many codes as apply. Document offering all options that you need for coding. The coded segment is displayed in the margin area.

When coding data in this way, a new quotation is created automatically. Next, highlight the remaining part of the paragraph starting at "However The margin area now looks like this:. The work you have done so far also is visible in the Project Explorer on the left. Take a look at your project explorer and open the sub trees for D3 and for codes:.

Margin display of coded data segment. Display of codes and quotations in the margin area. Coding a text segment using the context menu. The number behind the quotations 3: The density remains 0 until the researcher. The density is not a value that is calculated by the software.

It goes up, when the researcher. PDF files can be text or image files. Sometimes users accidentally add an image PDF and wonder why they. If this happens but you want to be able to select text, you need to re-create the PDF file,. In a lot of PDF creators these days this is an. If you want to code text, select the text just like you do in a Word file.

If you want to code an image within a PDF file, draw a rectangular area with your mouse, just as if you would. Document 1 is a PDF document. Try it out. Now, we would like to invite you to continue for a few minutes to code the document. If you come across a. Dock The Code. Project Explorer after some codes have been created and linked.

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Click the List coding button. A window opens that shows all existing codes. Enter a word or a few letters that. The list will be shortened and only shows the codes that. Select one or more codes from the list and click the OK button. Modifying the length of a quotation is easy. Select the quotation by clicking on the quotation bar or code in the. List Coding window: If you want to replace a code that is linked to a data segment, you can simply drag and drop another code from. Select one of the offered colors. Code comments can be used for various types of purposes. The most common usage probably is to use them for.

If you work in teams, you may also want to add a coding rule or an example quote. If you work. You can also use it. There are several. If the Code Manager is open, you can use the comment field at the bottom of the window. You may begin your coding very close to the data generating lots of codes. In order not to drown in a long list of. Another reason for merging is that you realize that two codes have the same. Next, select which code should be kept, in other words the target into which all other codes should be.

Places where you can access the code comment option. If the codes to be merged already had a comment, these comments will be copied over into the comment field. If you want to click along, please open the already coded stage 2 project. Splitting a code is necessary if you have been lumping together many quotations under a broad theme. This is a. At some point, however, those codes. Think of a basket full of fruits. At first it is OK to collect all kinds of. In the stage 2 sample project, you find a code with the name: In the Split Code dialogue, you see a list of the quotations coded with the code and all other related entities.

Figure 63 only the quotations are shown, all other options have been deactivated on the left-hand side. This would mean that a quotation is coded with. Use this option with care as it might clutter up your margin. If you do not want to keep the original code, but have not assigned a sub code to each of the quotations, you.

Orphan quotations are quotations that are. In the column 'Codes' you can see whether a quotation has already been assigned to a code or not Figure Rename code 1 and 2, so one is called 'effects pos: To begin splitting, select one of the sub codes. For this exercise, let's use Code 1. Click on each quotation and read it in the preview. If it contains something about improved relationships with either partners, own parents or the.

Repeat this for Code 2. Make sure that you deactivate Code 1 before adding quotations. If aspects of both. Code 1 and 2 are contained in a quotation, you can also add two or more sub codes. Take a look at the 'effects pos' code category in the Code Manager, or in the code list in the Navigator, to see. Code groups help in organizing codes, they make it easy to access specific codes from a long list of codes, and. As has been explained for document.

Below only. C ODES button. Select a few codes, e. After dropping the codes, enter a name for the code group, e. If you click on the newly created code group, only the codes from this group will show up in the list on the. This allows you to quickly access codes in your list without having to scroll the list all the.

To show all codes again, close the yellow pane that shows up on top of the code list when selecting a group. If you are interested in learning about the differences between codes, code groups and smart codes, please. Load an image document e. Into the search field, enter source , so that the list only shows codes the contain the word source. Select for instance ' sour ce: To modify an image quotation, just re-size the rectangle by dragging one of the orange handles to a different. There are several options to retrieve quotations.

In the following you will learn how to retrieve quotations of a. You can retrieve quotations of a single. First let's explore the Code Manager option:. Open the Code Manager and dock it if not already docked. Next double-click a code. A list of quotations coded with the selected code opens. You may need to re-. Code an image using the List Coding option. The list of retrieved quotations opens floated, but you can dock it. This makes quotation retrieval more. If you dock it, it shows up in the navigator on the left-hand side.

To dock the window, click on the. The second option is to retrieve quotations in the Quotation Manager:. Select a code in the side panel of the Quotation Manager. The list of quotations now only shows the. If you click on a quotation, it will be shown in the preview area. Quotation Retrieval in docked Code Manager showing a floated quotation list. View retrieved quotation in context.

Retrieving quotations via the docked quotation list. The yellow bar on top shows the code you have selected. In technical terms, it functions as a filter. This filter. The operator ANY means: Show quotations where ANY the selected codes apply. The operator ALL means: Simple Boolean queries in the Quotation Manager.

Retrieving coded data in the Quotation Manager. A LL means that two or more codes have been applied to the exact same quotation. It is a very restrictive.

Qualitative Data Analysis

It is of course also possible to create a report of the retrieved quotations. Select to include the Content and the Codes into the report. Deactivate any other options. If you chose to create an Excel report, you can select to create a separate sheet for each code. This is the option. Switching between the ANY and All operator. In the exercises so far, you have learned about quotation and code. In addition, you can also write comments for your project, for each document, group, network, link. The difference between comments and memos is that:. Comm ents are always tied to an entity; they never stand alone.

Mem os , on the other hand, are independent. A further difference is that. The following two tables provides and an overview of most common usages of the various comments and. Comments for Typical Usage. Take for instance a look at the comment written for this. Below there are only some ideas on how memos can be used. These are probably sufficient to get your started.

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But do not feel restricted by the suggestions. In gaining more experience in working with the software, you may. Memos De scriptio n Type. Research diary Summary of activities in a work session. Usually there is only one. However, if your research diary gets very. Research questions List and descriptions of your research questions memo. Notes for team members Things you notice during the analysis and that you want to discuss.

Ideas As a place to collect ideas that arise during analysis memo. On the code system Notes on the code system like ideas on code refinement; ideas for. To-do-memo A general memo on things that are still on the to-do-list memo. Memos can be used as a place for writing-up analysis. Use a quotation. When creating a report, comments can be included and you can select which types of comments to include.

Depending on your last settings, the memo editor may open as floating window or docked. If you prefer a. Let's change it to 'method'. Double-check in the Type column of the Memo Manager whether the type has been changed. Memos can be linked to quotations and codes. Take for instance a look at the memos starting with RQ, which. These are analytical memos and the intent is to write up an answer to the.

When writing such memos, you probably come across segments in your data quotations. In order not to lose these quotations, you can link. Drag and drop a memo from the Memo Manger or from the navigator onto a quotation the highlighted. If you drop a memo onto code in the margin area, the code will be replaced!. Try it out: Figure 80 illustrates the various options. In the margin area, the memo link shows the magenta colored memo. Look a the groundedness and density count in either the navigator or Memo Manager.

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Groundedness is 2 as you. Which codes are linked to the memo can be seen in the navigator on the left see Figure Linking memos to quotations and codes. You can visualize the linkages by opening the memo in a network. The easiest way to open a network for a memo is to right-click on a memo no matter where you are — you. To create the same view as shown in Figure 83, click on the Layout button and select the option 'Orthogonal'. Play with a few of the other layout and rerouting options. Before you work through this and the network chapters, you may first want to gain some practice with the.

Open a network on a memo here a memo has been selected in the margin area. There are several ways to query data. You already learned the steps for a simple retrieval based on one code,. In the following, three further ways of querying data are shown:. You might also think of it as a cross-tabulation of codes. In the following, we. You can practice your skills further by. Do blog respondents who have children define happiness differently from those without children?

If they do,. In the example data set, cases are embedded within a document and coded with attribute codes like gender:. All attribute codes are marked with a. Within each case, other issues are coded see Figure With the help of the Code Cooccurence tools. Research question 1 asks in particular for the differences in responses with regard to how happiness has been. Coded were the following three aspects:. Now, let's look at the attribute codes of the blog respondents:. There are 20 respondents who do not have children, and 74 who have children. Remember these data are social. When looking at frequency distributions in all subsequent.

Next, you need to select the row and the column codes. For this exercise select the ' fam: The first number in the cell is the total number of hits, how often the row and the column code cooccur. It is a number between 0 and 1, and the higher it is, the stronger is. The c-coefficient is similar to a correlation coefficient. It can meaningfully be interpreted, if your data set. You can deactivate the c-coefficient by. For further information see the full manual. Double-click on a cell in the table to see the list of quotations coded with the two co-occurring codes.

You can. Double-click on a quotation to see it displayed in context. To save the table in Excel format, click on the Export button in ribbon of the table. Compare the comment written on the Parenting blog D3: Reader comments with the comments written as. NYTM comments. More specifically let's compare their. In the C ODES field, select all codes with the prefix 'effects neg' and all codes with the prefix 'effects pos'. Next select the two documents D3 and D4 for the columns. The results show how often each selected codes has been applied in each document. Notice that we have.

Reader comments parenting blog as compared to D4: This means for a proper comparison, the table needs to be exported to Excel, where you can. If you want to practice the Code-Document Table further, you can examine the differences between D3 and. You find several. You see them in the fourth. Check out whether they are differences between male and. In addition to retrieving frequencies, if you are interested in comparing documents or groups based on the.

In the following exercise, we will only query a single code in relation to either a document or document group. Once you open the query tool, you will see that there are many more options. For now, let's just get a feeling for. This retrieval results in 19 quotations that you see at the bottom right in the blue status line. If you double-click on a quotation, you can see it in context. You find a report option at the top right in the.

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With the Sco pe T OOL , you can restrict the results of a query to a selected document or document group. T OOL. Query Tool showing a simple retrieval of a code group. This opens an additional region. As scope select document D3 with a double-click. Notice that the results of your query in the pane at the. The status bar at the bottom now shows the number of resulting quotations based on. With the scope set to document D3, the number of resulting quotations is The term can be as simple as just one document or document group. You can also build a more complex scope.

This resets the scope. Next select a different document or. The query tool can also be used for more complex retrievals based on multiple codes. Let's for instance examine. Do parents who report difficult aspects of parenting also talk about positive aspects? Delete the Scope and the current query term. Close the Scope Tool by clicking on Edit Scope. As we want all segments where parents write about negative effects of parenting, select the ' fam: On the right-hand side, enter the code group 'effects of parenting negative'. The resulting list of quotations is shown below the query.

The query itself is interactive. Click on the node ' fam: Click on the node 'effects of parenting negative' all quotations from this code group will be listed. Clicking on the node with the cooccurence operator, the results of the query will be shown 16 quotations. As we only want to find comments where parents both raise positive and negative issues around parenting, we.

Make sure that the cooccurence operator is the active element in the query. You will see a blue frame around. The resulting number of quotations for this query is 7. Thus, seven respondents have written about both. You can review the results in context, or create a report if you prefer. Another option is to store the query as a smart code for further re-use:. As name enter: RQ3 research question 3. You can now review all quotations of this query at any time that.

Building a more complex query - step 1. Set oper ator s allow combinations of keywords according to set operations. They are the most common. Sema ntic op erat ors exploit the network structures that were built from the codes.

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Prox imit y o pera tors are used to analyze the spatial relations e. The following Set operators are available: NOT needs only one. However, the operands themselves may be of arbitrary complexity. Codes, code groups, or other smart. It translates into everyday "either-or. AND All of the fol lowi ng are true: This means you have applied two or more codes to the same quotation. It produces best results when. OR ANY of the follo wing are tr ue: The OR operator does not really match the everyday usage of "OR. The OR operator retrieves all. NOT Non e of th e fo llow ing are tru e: The NOT operator tests for the absence of a condition.

Technically, it. Given quotations in the.

It has high "recall" a lot is. Venn diagrams are descriptive schemes for illustrating the different set operations associated with Set. The operators in this section exploit connected codes resulting from previous theory-building work. Boolean-based queries are extensional and simply enumerate the elements of combined sets e.

Kindness , semantic operators are i ntentional , as they already capture some meaning expressed in appropriately. The UP operator all parents of a code looks at all directly linked codes and their quotations at higher levels. The DOWN operator all children of a code traverses the network from higher to lower concepts, collecting all. Only transitive code-code relations are processed; all others are ignored. When building a terminology from your codes, use the ISA relation for sub-term links. However, because you make use of a. Proximity describes the spatial relation between quotations.

Quotations can be embedded in one another, one. The operators in this section exploit these relationships. They require two operands as. They differ from the other operators in one important aspect: Proximity operators are non -. This property makes their usage a little more difficult to learn. A hierarchy of concepts suitable for semantic retrieval. Non-commutativity requires a certain input sequence for the operands. Another important characteristic for these operators is the specification of the operand for which you want the.

This is done implicitly by the sequence. The code or term that is entered first. The embedding operators describe quotations that are contained in one another and that are coded with certain. Quot atio ns enclo sin g qu ota tion s: Quot atio ns bein g en clos ed by q uota tion s: A that are contained within data segments coded with B. For example, if you want to retrieve all segments for "hard work but: If you were to enter the query the other way around i. If you are however interested in reading all quotations coded with. Visualizing the spatial relations between segments.

From the above example we learn that you begin with the code whose content you are most interested in and. The overlap operators describe quotations that overlap one another:. Overl aps qu ota tion ov erlap pin g at st art: Overl app ed by quot atio ns over lapp ing at end: Often when interested in the relation between two or more codes, you don't really care whether something.

It this is the case, you simply use the Co- occu rs operator. Co-occur is essentially a short-cut for a combination of the four proximity operators discussed above, plus the. The query shown in Figure retrieves all quotations that are coded with ' fam: The more general cooccurrence operator is quite useful when working with transcripts. In interviews, people.

With other types of data they are however quite useful. Think of video data where it might be important whether action A was already going on before action B started. Or if you have coded longer sections in your data like biographical time periods in a person's life. The same applies when working with pre-coded survey data. This enables you to ask for instance for all.

The distance operators describe a sequence of disjointed quotations. Quot atio ns follo win g qu ota tion s: Quot atio ns prec eding quotat ions: When selecting any of the two operators, you can specify a maximum distance to be implemented in version. Possible base units are characters and paragraphs for text, milliseconds for audio files, frames for video. Visualization can be a key element in discovering connections between concepts, interpreting your findings, and. These small segments of your larger web of analysis are modeled using the Network View.

Editor, an intuitive work space that we also like to think is easy on the eye. The next exercise requires that we work with data in a later stage of analysis, i. Thus, we once again work with the stage 2 project see our website , or download directly. Open the Networks tree in the Project Explorer. Network views contain a wide variety of features and options. Here is just a sampling to get you started:.

Depending on your screen size, enlarge or maximize the network view and adjust it to the size of your. Move an object by selecting it and dragging it to different locations in the network view. Right-click on a code node or a link to view a series of options in the context menu. Neighbors are all entities that are directly linked to the selected node. Co-occuring codes are all codes that code. Context menus in networks provide further options. Next, we would like to invite you to experiment with the different layout and Routing options that you find. You may have noticed that the colors of two nodes have changed.

After you have experimented with some of these features, close the network. Next, select the network ' Hype rlin k-W eb: Look ing at sou rces of hap pine ss '. It contains image documents. Also try out the other. There are several ways to create a new network view. You can start by selecting a few codes in the Code Manager. You can drag and drop entities from everywhere into the network editor. Drag a few codes, one or two documents, some quotations and a memo from the project explorer into the. If you select items that already have been linked somewhere in your HU, the linkages will show up.

The number of linkages for codes and memos are displayed if you select the 'Show. The network below contains three codes, one document and one memo. There is a virtual link between the red. Document and quotation reviews and display of virtual links. To link two codes to each other, select a code. A red dot appears on the top left corner of the node. Click on. Release the left mouse button on top of the node. A list of relation opens consisting of the default relations.

Select one of these relations. Now the two codes are linked. Repeat this process and link other codes to each other. If you link a memo to a code, or a code to a memo, there will not be a list of relations to choose from. Specific relations with definable properties can be used for code-code links and for quotation-quotation. To add a few quotations to your network, you can either drag some from the Quotation Manager into the. To do this, right click on a code-node and.

Please note that the import neighbor option potentially adds lots of entities to your network. I think it's a great idea especially for the ones that do data collection through interviews , as you can do a quick data analysis without having to do the conversion of files or the transcribing. This is a great portable option for first pass quoting and coding of audio and text immediately post-collection. However, as another reviewer noted, it slows considerably with larger amounts of data and isn't a replacement for the full version.

App Store Preview. This app is only available on the App Store for iOS devices. Export your projects to your favourite file sharing service with the Files app iOS Users of older iOS versions can export their projects via iTunes please tap "share" then "export project" and wait for the "Export finished" window to appear. Follow the instructions shown on screen to retrieve the project via iTunes.

Bug fixes Fixed a bug where exporting a project via dropbox could lead to a crash. You can now use dropbox with the Files app or export to iTunes. See "Export your projects" above. Fixed a bug where opening an audio or video file could lead to a crash. Fixed a bug where recording an audio or video file could lead to a crash. Fixed a bug where exporting a project for the second time was messing with PDF documents.

Fixed a bug where text selection was weird after deleting a quotation. Fixed a bug where the waveform would scale incorrectly. Fixed a bug where image quotations resized when opening from quotation manager. Fixed a bug where the memo manager could become unreachable. Improvements Improved video user interface time indicators. Improved margin view when rotating the device. Improved design for a clearer view of what is important. Bug fixes and improvements. Bug Fixes. Memos can now be renamed. Memos can now have location info. User name can now be changed.

In-document viewing and editing of code details.